Communication has many components.  All serve to increase the way people learn about the world around them, utilize knowledge and skills, and interact with colleagues, family and friends. Communication skills are at the heart of the educational experience and are a determining factor in success or failure in school.

 

 

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Communication Problems:
Academic Impact:
Expressive Language Disorder - a developmental disorder where a child will have problems expressing himself in speech. Characteristics may include limited vocabulary, difficulty recalling words and producing complex or lengthy sentences. Can make child unwilling to participate in class  and interfere with his ability to demonstrate what he has learned. Because child has difficulty putting his ideas into words in an organized way, he has trouble getting others to understand what he is trying to communicate, leading to social isolation.
Receptive Language Disorder – difficulty understanding language. May be at the word level [vocabulary/word knowledge] and/or the sentence level [syntax/morphology]. Child may have poor attention span, poor listening skills, limited receptive vocabulary Problems in understanding language will affect almost every aspect of school: following directions, learning vocabulary, understanding instruction, reading comprehension, difficulty retaining concepts from one day to the next, etc.
Pragmatic Language Disorder – difficulty with the rules related to language use in a social setting (e.g., speaker-listener relationship, turn-taking, eye contact), nonverbal language, implied meanings, functions of speech Affects child’s ability to develop normal peer and adult relationships, to use language appropriately to get his needs met, leading to social isolation.  Also affects ability to adequately solve problems and make decisions.
Articulation Difficulties - problems with the way sounds are formed and/or strung together usually characterized by substituting one sound for another, omitting a sound, or distorting a sound If severe, child may have difficulty making himself understood, leading to feelings of failure, low self-esteem, poor academic and social success and may limit vocational/career opportunities.

Central Auditory Processing Disorders

a breakdown in auditory abilities resulting in diminished comprehension, in the presence of normal hearing sensitivity.
May have difficulty hearing in noisy environments, remembering information, discriminating between similar sounds or words, or listening long enough to complete a task. May affect child’s ability to develop normal language, reading and spelling skills,  succeed academically, or communicate effectively.  
Stuttering - an interruption in the flow or rhythm of speech characterized by hesitations, repetitions and/or prolongations of sounds, syllables, words, or phrases May cause difficulties participating actively and effectively in social and educational activities. Child may experience teasing and other social penalties, resulting in social isolation and low self-esteem.
Voice Disorders - inappropriate pitch, loudness, or quality of the voice, related to abuse, misuse, or neurologic disease May attempt to conceal atypical vocal production or feelings of inferiority about their voices, resulting in limited classroom participation. May become withdrawn and reticent, or vocally aggressive and defiant, in attempt to compensate for vocal disability.

Adapted from:  http://www.icdrehab.org/prog11.htm

                     http://www.kidsource.com/LDA/spoken_language.html

                     http://www.oafccd.com/factshee/fact73.htm